Vol. 30 Issue 1

A.A. Alsobayel, M.A. Almarshade and M. A. Albadry
Hatching eggs used in the study were obtained from commercial broiler breeders: Cobb, Ross 308 and Arbor Acres. A total of 150 hatching eggs were obtained from each breed at age, 30-35, 40-45 and 50-55. Eggs for each age were randomly divided into three experimental group, 50 eggs (replicates) in each, stored either for 0, 7 or 14 days under 75- 80% relative humidity and 16-18 ºC and incubated following standard hatchery practices. Eggs were candled at the end of the first week and 18th day of incubation period to determine percentages of fertile eggs and early and late embryonic mortality. Hatched chicks number was recorded to determine hatchability of fertile and total eggs and unhatched eggs were broken to verify early and late embryonic mortality. Data were statistically analyzed using the General Linear Models procedures of SAS described in the material and methods. The results indicate that breed and age had a significant (P≤ 0.01) effect on most studied traits. Cobb showed the best values in all studied traits followed by Ross and Arbor Acres. Young breeders had significantly (P≤ 0.05) better performance with regard to fertility and total eggs hatchability, whereas fertile hatchability and late and total embryonic mortality were the lowest for young and middle aged breeders. The results also indicated that storage period of hatching eggs had a significant (P≤ 0.05) effect upon all studied traits except fertility and pepped chicks percentages. Fresh hatching eggs had significantly (P≤ 0.05) the highest total and fertile eggs hatchability percentages and the lowest early, late and total embryonic mortality percentages followed by those of eggs stored for 7 days, whereas eggs stored for 14 days had the lowest values. From the results reported herein we concluded that breed had a significant effect upon hatchability parameters and Cobb had the best performance followed by Ross whereas Arbor Acres showed the lowest performance. Advancing age of breeders and length of egg storage period had a negative effect upon hatchability parameters. However the reproductive performance of the breeds used in the study performed far less than reported in theirs companies guidelines.

A. Batayneh, A. Laboun, S.Qaisy, H. Ghrefat, T. Zumlot, H. Zaman, E. Elawadi, S. Mogren and K. Al-Qudah
The Midyan Basin is characterized by arid climate with rare surface water flow. Groundwater is the main water resources in this region. In order to evaluate their suitability for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes, chemical characteristics of groundwater in the Midyan Basin (northwestern Saudi Arabia) have been investigated and evaluated. A total of 72 water samples were collected from different wells and analyzed for hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-, NO3- and SO42-. To understand quality of groundwater and their suitability, chemical indices like sodium percentage, sodium adsorption ratio and salinity values have been calculated using analytical techniques. From traditional Piper diagram for water classification, the water quality is placed at Na+-Ca2+-SO42--Cl- type. According to the results of electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio, 37% of the studied samples are regarded as highly saline, while 63% of them are classified as very highly saline. As per the Arab Gulf and international standards, such waters are not suitable for irrigation under normal condition and further action is required to remediate such problem by salinity control. Sodium content in 24% of the studied samples is regarded as high that can’t be used for irrigation purposes for any soils. Thus high level of salinity, sodium adsorption ratio and sodium percentage in most water samples have made them unsuitable.

K. Latif, A. Aziz and A. Mahboob
Cryptographic hash functions are widely used in many information security applications like digital signatures, Message Authentication Codes (MACs), and other forms of authentication. In response to recent advances in cryptanalysis of commonly used hash algorithms, NIST USA announced a publicly open competition for selection of new standard Secure Hash Algorithm called SHA-3. One important aspect of this competition is evaluation of hardware implementations of candidates. In this work we present efficient hardware implementations and corresponding performance evaluations of three final round candidates of SHA-3: Blake, Keccak and Skein. We implemented and investigated the performance of these candidates on modern and latest FPGA devices from Xilinx. We show our results for most recently released devices on which implementations have not been reported yet. This work serves as performance investigation of leading SHA-3 finalists on most up-to-date FPGAs.

A.J. Aldegheishem and M. Alqarni
In light of rapid urban developments in the cities of Saudi Arabia, the municipalities of the Kingdom strives to take advantage of the rapid advances in information technology, particularly geographic information systems, in planning and development and providing spatial integrated databases to improve the performance of daily activities. Thus, this study aims to measure and assess the use of geographic information systems and their applications in the government agencies concerned with urban planning in Riyadh region, and to identify the most important elements and obstacles they face in the urban planning. The problem of the study focuses on identifying the effectiveness of the use of GIS applications in urban planning in government agencies that have introduced these technologies within their system of work in Riyadh, which represent (8.4%) of all government agencies in the region, because some municipal agencies do not adopt modern technologies in urban planning and for lack of information on the ways and methods of using these applications. The study depends on the use of the descriptive survey approach, achieved by questioning the members of the research community, through identifying the current situation of the use of these systems in urban planning agencies, conducting interviews with officials and users of the system and determining the importance and feasibility of providing integrated geographic information systems to increase the efficiency of planning and development in the region. The study concludes a number of elements, which can contribute to the success of the available systems, and identifies some of the obstacles that limit their use and continuity and the problems faced by users. The study recommends to develop the geographic information systems, qualify the existing staff and to activate online sharing of urban data and information and communication between different planning and development agencies.

S.A.H. El-Quliti
This era is characterized by complexities of its structures and institutions and the large number and complexity of factors affecting its various activities, as well as the multiplicity of regional leagues and alliances. All those factors clarify inevitably the urgent need for Arab joint cooperation in all fields, including the health. They also force to consider the strategic planning as a means to deal with these complexities, and as a scientific way to reach the goals to achieve the advancement of health services provided to citizens across the Arab world. There is no doubt that planning is needed in all organizations, but its need is reflected clearly in big organizations and institutions of various kinds which seeks through the planning for a development process leading to benefits and interest to the state and individuals, and even more evident in the planning at the State level or at a group o f States. The importance of this research topic arises from difficult challenges in the health area witnessed in the Arab world that need a comprehensive vision and an integrated strategic plan according to scientific and systematic way to reach specific and clear targets. The joint work will contribute in the intensification of efforts, maximization of the benefits, integration of resources, market expansion, convergence and integration, ensuring needed funds, and the emphasis on the identity. This research is concerned with the aspects of Arab joint cooperation in the medical field. It aims to expose the scientific, human and institutional resources enjoyed by the Arab world, and to clarify the obstacles that prevent achievement of that joint cooperation. It cares to take advantage of the ingredients and the positives that already exist and meet the challenges and disadvantages facing the joint Arab actions. It focuses on strategic planning for the establishment of a proposed Arab Health Organization to support, lead and supervise Arab medical joint projects, and to work for the progress of medical practical and research works in all the Arab countries, and to adopt strategic planning as an access for such venerable targets.

S. Bourahla, A. Ali Benamara and S. Kouadri Moustefai
The vibrational spectra of crystalline nitric acid hydrates have been investigated at the periodic ab initio quantum level by using a Gaussian type basis set and the hybrid B3LYP Hamiltonian with CRYSTAL06 code. Using as input the X-ray structures of crystalline nitric acid monohydrate NAM, dihydrate α-NAD and trihydrate β-NAT, the inner coordinates within each unit cell have been optimized. The calculated structures of these atmospherically relevant systems are used in the evaluation of their vibrational normal modes. The obtained theoretical results show in general a good agreement compared to the observed spectra in the range 4000- 600 cm-1 and 200-20 cm-1 for infrared and Low-Frequency Raman spectra, respectively.

L. Aissa and B. Kéloufi
This work illustrates the interest of the use of flora species to detect the air pollution by heavy metals from road and vehicle in the town of Mascara (north-west of Algeria). The (Platanus acerifolia.Wild) leaves were tested as a possible bio monitor of heavy metals pollution; they are taken from different locations with different degrees of metal pollution (urban roadside and control site). Then, the concentrations of lead, zinc, copper, nickel and chromium were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest and the lowest metal concentration were found in the heavy traffic sites and the control site, respectively. However, the Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni are generally higher than Cr in all samples taken from roadside sites. The mean values of Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Cr are 292.20, 3.45, 2.55, 1.90, 1.05 ppm respectively. In regard to the results of this study, the trees’ leaves can be applied to monitor the pollution by heavy metals in urban atmosphere.

H. Durgham and S. Ikhtiyar
The raphydophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is widely distributed in coastal ecosystems at different latitudes where it cause red tide. In spite of It has been identified in many coasts around the world, this species are recorded first time from the Syrian coast of the eastern Mediterranean in 2010. Heterosigma akashiwo was isolated from samples which are collected from the coast of Lattakia port. Surface temperature, chlorophyll -a –b –c , Pheophytin, and nutrients concentrations were measured.

C. Mohammadi Zadeh and A. Javanmard
Surface sediment samples collected from twenty-five sites (Amirabad(10),Sari(5), Babolsar(5) and Noushahr(5) of Caspian Sea coast of Mazandaran province were determined for 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by GC-MS method. In this study the concentrations and some main sources of PAHs in southern Caspian Sea coast sediments were determined. We analyzed 8 PAHs such as Benz[a]anthracene, Benz[a]pyrene, Fluoranthene, pyrene, Chrysene, Benz[e]pyrene, Benz[k] Fluoranthene and Benzo [ghi] perylene in this research. There was high spatial variability in the PAH concentrations that ranged from 12 to 453ng/g. Result of this study showed that Concentrations of all PAHs except Pyr, B (a) A and B (a) P in Amirabad are below the concentration to elicit toxic effects in benthic organisms (Effects Range-Low). To elucidate sources, two molecular indices (Pyr/Fluo, BaA/ (BaA+Chr) ratios were used to determine the pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. Amirabad-Behshahr region receives input primarily from oil activity; therefore, it can be inferred that the main source of PAH could be petrogenic (Pyr/Fluo =1.07). The PAH source in Sari is pyrogenic for Neka power plant that uses fossil fuels (BaA/BaA+Chr) =0.38). Water samples were collected from 20 wells (twenty locations in different parts of mazandaran Province) during a period of 1 year. The average Concentrations of diazinon,chlorpyrfos, ethion and edifenphos in the ground waters were 0.018, 0.017, 0.014and 0.013 μg/l, respectively . This study describes the seasonal distribution of Organophosphorus pesticides in ground waters of the eastern side of Mazandaran province (Sari-Goharbaran) in north of Iran.