Vol. 32 Issue 4

Alshenaifi Mohammed and Majed Alharbi
The primary purpose of the study was to determine the awareness of Palm trees farmers toward the uses of wastewater in Palm trees irrigation. The population size of the study was 304 farmers. Questionnaire were reviewed for content and face validity by a panel of experts from department of agricultural extension at the College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University . A three point Likert -type scale was used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.85, which indicated the internal consistency of the scale. Findings were that: 98% of the farmers used treated wastewater in irrigating Palm trees, 54% of farmers irrigate fruits trees and 40% of farmers irrigate pasture crops with treated water. Seventy eight percent of farmers used flood irrigation, 44% of farmers do not known that they should not collect fruits that fall on the ground when using sewage .Nearly 41% of farmers do not known that they should stop irrigation with treated wastewater one week before harvesting. Significant differences at the level of 0.05 were detected in means of farmers in different levels in age, education, occupation, and experiences. Farmers with higher level of education, more experiences and older in age are more aware of health precautions and technical and laws of wastewater. It recommended that an extension programs be implement to raise awareness of farmers to reduce the risks when using wastewater in agriculture.

Sheikh Gloom, Basel Alyousfi and Sabah Aljenaid
This paper concentrates on studying, analyzing and assessing the potential effects of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) on Climate Change (CC). The study was carried out through conducting a Greenhouse Gas )GHG( inventory, and calculating the past and future Methane Gas (CH4) emissions generated from Askar Landfill in Bahrain. The work was based on a methodology established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency )USEPA( as well as an approach adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change )IPCC( to determine the amounts of methane gas that can be generated from MSWM; and therefore to estimate, under different scenarios, the net amounts of methane gas sequestered and emitted from the landfill into the atmosphere. Specifically, the research approach, aimed at quantifying GHG emanating from Askar Landfill )whether released from or stored within the site( during the period 2000-2020. Also it aims at investigating the possibility of converting MSW from being a source of GHG emissions with adverse CC impacts to being a carbon sink to claim emissions reduction credits through proper management of such wastes. The amounts of biochemically biodegradable organic matter contained naturally within MSW were estimated throughout the study period, incorporating available data and future forecasts. The volume of methane gas emanating from Askar Landfill had reached 25 million m3 in 2000 of a total mass estimated at 18 thousand tons or 106 thousand tons MTCE )Metric Tons Carbon Equivalent(, of which 10 thousand tons MTCE were detained within the landfill while about 95 thousand tons MTCE emitted into the atmosphere. Such quantities of generated methane gas have increased in the year 2008 to reach about 98 million m3 in volume and 69 thousand tons in mass )i.e., equivalent to 408 thousand tons MTCE(, of which more than 40 thousand tons MTCE were sequestered within the landfill and 370 thousand tons MTCE discharged up to the outer atmosphere. In the Year 2020 )at the end of the landfill’s design-life(, considering population growth and MSW increase in Bahrain, the cumulative amounts of GHG predicted from Askar Landfill in terms of methane gas generation is anticipated to stretch up to 1975 million m3 in volume and 8.3 million tons MTCE, of which 820 thousand tons MTCE is to be seized within the landfill and about 7.5 million tons MTCE is likely emit into the atmosphere, i.e., this is total over the entire 20 years period of landfill operation. From the above, it is clear that MSW sanitary landfills, though considered as significant sources of GHG emissions )particularly methane( contributing to global warming, are at the same time carbon storage vaults of some fractions of GHG resulting from the decomposing MSW mass as well as of the recalcitrant organic portions. The potential of carbon storage and sequestration at MSW landfills can be estimated at about 10 - 15% of the total quantity of biogas generated. As a result, the well- designed and operated landfills form carbon sinks and natural depots for GHG, positively impacting the climate change phenomenon. They can also be utilized to gain )and trade( credits from carbon emissions reduction in order to secure additional financial resources to help funding integrated wastes management systems.

Sabah Aljenaid, Ghadeer Mohamed Redhah Kathem and Nadir Abdulhamed
This study aims to map, examine and analyze the changes in Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) in the main islands of the Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain, Muharraq, Sitra) during the period from 1998 to 2012.DPSIR was used as a qualitative approach to analyze driving Forces-Pressures that are mainly affect the LULC changes. While the quantitative analysis of the driving forces and landuse change was done using GIS analysis. Four LULC categories were recognized )Built up, Agriculture, Barren and Wet land(.The results revealed that the total area of the main islands has increased from 709.5 km2 in 1998, to more than 767 km2 in 2012.Consequently, Built up areas were increased from 126.3 km2 to 266.9 km2, while the Agriculture areas were decreased from 72.5 km2 in 1998 to 66.1 km2 in 2012 as a result of the expansion of cities and residential areas establishment. The Barren areas were decreased from 409.6 km2 in 1998 to 326.4 km2 in 2012. DPSIR )Driving forces - Pressures - State - Impact -Responses(framework analyses indicated that the social )increase in population( and economic )increase in GDP( in the country were the main driving forces that exert different pressures on the environment and, as a consequence lead to impacts on LULC, and changed the state of the environment.

Abdel Rahman Sayer AL-Shammri, Asma Ali Abahussain, Abdelhadi AW and Mohammed Ali Al-Murad
The Wafra area is located in the southern part of the State of Kuwait constituting about 47% of the State’s total agricultural area. The expansion in Wafra area from 11.25 km2 in 1973 to 199.2 km2 in 2010 has led to excessive pressure on groundwater resources. The objective of this study was to examine the quality of the groundwater in terms of suitability for irrigation pertaining to specific quality standard indices. To achieve this, water samples were collected from 31 wells in Wafra Area. The samples were analyzed for salinity, cations, anions, and some heavy metals. Results indicated that the values of total dissolved salts )TDS(, electrical conductivity )EC(, chlorine )Cl-(, calcium )Ca+2(, and sodium )Na+( detected in water samples did not satisfy Kuwait, and GCC standards. The study revealed that 68% of the wells were highly saline while the rest were moderately saline according to FAO standards. According to Simsek and Gunduz )2007(, the water can be considered moderately suitable for irrigation. According to Richard )1954( standards the water is of type C4-S4 )highly saline and sodic( and not suitable for irrigation according to AOAD standards. Piper diagram and regression and correlations analysis indicated that sodium and chlorine are the dominant cations and anions. The analysis also revealed that the concentration of cadmium )Cd+2( in all the tested wells was higher than the standard concentration range of 0.01 to 0.05 mg/l and to a lesser extent nickel )Ni+2( and manganese )Mn+2(, violating the permissible limits. The results also showed an increase in total dissolved salts with time from 6984 ppm in 1989 and 7930 in 1998, reaching an average of 9211 by 2010. The study recommended encouraging adoption of modern agriculture techniques and reuse of treated wastewater, to protect soil and groundwater from salinization and to promote sustainable agricultural production in Wafra area as well as periodical check for heavy metal concentrations specially cadmium in groundwater.

Mohammad Suliman Abido and Asma Ali Abahussain
The research aimed at revealing some of the features of the biodiversity planning process in the countries of West Asia by comparing the content of national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs) developed in the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The preparation mechanism of the strategies and States’ compliance Documents with the provisions of the Convention were also analyzed. of )NBSAPs( were obtained from the Secretariat of the CBD and the official websites of the concerned countries. Cluster analysis of NBSAPs objectives showed average similarity of 89.8% among NBSAPs of countries in the region and an average of 94.3% between NBSAPs objectives and the convention’s. Number of strategy objectives differ among strategies, nevertheless, similarity exists in preparation mechanism and strategies references. NBSAPs are characterized by the weaknesses of public participation and a notable absence of the role of the private sector. The setup process was limited in some countries to a team of few technicians and limited consultative mechanisms. Sectoral planning dominated most of NBSAPs processes and strategies were mostly dependent on external funding. Common objectives of NBSAPs were similar as they include; pursuing biodiversity conservation, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. Goals of the strategies varied among NBSAPs in terms of distribution and relation to the objectives of the convention, which formed the basis for the formulation of the objectives of NBSAPs. Economic tools were absent in valuation of biodiversity and the implications of its degradation. Furthermore, the goals of the NBSAPs were not linked to other national strategies goals, thus activities of synergistic nature were not materialized in the plan of work. Use of well defined indicators Institutional, administrative, regulatory, inadequate was absent too. financial resources and shortages of experts were the most common obstacles faced planning process. It is suggested that integrated planning that enables wide public participation and ecosystem based approach, which insures integration of development strategies, as well as inclusion of classified indicators be adopted in the preparation and formulation of the second generation of NBSAPs in the countries of the region.

Aisha Salem AL-Hamdan, Anwar Sheekheldeen Abdo and Amir Al-Sammak
This study addresses the issue of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)in the State of Kuwait, which has become inherent in many development projects. Numerous international and local institutions require assessment of environmental impacts prior to final approval of project implementation. In addition, item number (1) of Law No. 16 of 1996 amended provisions of Law No. 21 of 1995 issued by the General Authority for Environment stipulates the need for an environmental impact assessment, which became incumbent on everyone before the implementation and operation of any facility, whether industrial or recreational. The study aims to evaluate the methodology of the Kuwaiti Environmental Impact Assessment system, with regards to its stages and mechanism of follow-up procedures. And to compare it with the components, methods, criteria and policies of the current best global practices implemented by the World Bank and environmental impact assessment systems in Bahrain, Sultanate of Oman and Egypt. The study aims also to identify deficiencies and policy draw backs of EIA system in Kuwait, and to propose procedures that improve the application of environmental impact assessment methodologies. To achieve the objectives of the study an analysis of the data gathered from reports, scientific assessments, as well as from private consultancy offices was performed. The use of Gap approach enabled the researchers to identify the various gaps and limitations in the current practices and application of EIA procedures in the State of Kuwait. The EIA procedures and policies of the World Bank were the basic references of the study. The findings of the analysis show that: there is a gap between the environmental policies in Kuwait and how thoroughly these policies are applied in the field. This gap led to an imbalance in the practice of environmental impact assessment procedures. Public participation was weak in the stages (Scoping and Review) of environmental impact assessment. Participation is considered an effective part of the environmental assessment planning processes. The study proposed several recommendations for improving the EIA system in the State of Kuwait including: preparation of new procedural guidelines that will provide the basis to be applied by the General Authority for Environment during the audit of the environmental impact assessment reports, up-grading of the consultancy offices and encourage the active participation of the public in the stages of environmental impact assessment planning processes.

Abdul Razak Mahmoud Mohamed and Audai Mohamed Hassan Qasim
The trend of Hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha fishery for the artisanal sector in the Iraqi marine water, Northwest of the Arabian Gulf was described for the period from November 2012 to October 2013. The data on shad landing, interviews and a questionnaire for the fishermen as well as demo fishing were attained. Shad landings varied from 4t in February to 95t in April. Shad amounts formed 11.44% of the total catch Shad landing correlated negatively with salinity of water. The catch per unit of effort of shad for fishermen who was involved in the questionnaire ranged between 1.3-5.1 kg/h/1000m to 0.02-3.42 kg/h/1000m for demo fishing. There are several reasons behind the proposed reduction in shad landings in recent years, including the decline in discharges of Shatt Al-Arab River, overfishing and no regulations to protect and manage marine resources

Ali Al-Dousari;, Modi Ahmed, Noor Al-Dousari, Fatma Mutairi, Fatma Ballam, Eman Rashidi, Shayma Otaibi, Hamad Azemi and Ali Bathali
The accumulation of aeolian sand around single plant is known as nabkhas, if it is around two plants it is called compound nabkhas, while if it is around more than two plants it is then called a complex nabkha and all are classified as anchored dunes. The compound and complex nabkhas are formed around dominant native plants in open desert and sabkhas in Kuwait. Morphological measurements were taken from a field of nabkhas formed around the plant “Nitraria retusa” in Khadhma area. Around 120 surface and core samples (down to a depth of 100 cm at each 10 cm) were collected in order to identify the morphological, sedimentological and chemical properties. The particle size, organic and moisture content, biological activity, acidity, electrical conductivity were measured for compound and complex nabkhas. The particle size for compound and complex nabkhas are varying upon location in the body of nabkhas and each type has its own distinguishing properties. There is reality that all nabkha deposits contain more fine sand in the wind ward (tail) sides compared to the mid of nabkhas. Graphical and inter-relation figures succeed in distinguishing between compound and complex nabkhas. The complex nabkha is characterized by normal distribution with increase in medium and coarse sand fractions with a percentage reaching more than 50%. The volume of the sand body in complex and compound nabkhas are 376.7 m3 and 14 m3 respectively. The complex dune is composed of a coalescence of 51 nabkhas with average 40 degree from north towards west, parallel to the dominant wind direction in the area. The sediment samples from the compound and complex dune is basic, dry with normal electrical conductivity and low organic matter content. The sample are with a medium mean size distribution, poorly sorted, normal skewness and very platy kurtic. This study showed that the importance of the sand body in the nabkhas is as nutrient and water storage rather than as a shield protecting the nabkhas from sand blasting. This sand body attracts native animals to a marvellous ecological interaction especially in complex nabkhas. the nabkhas use drought periods to catch more mobile sand in order to increase the volume size and to increase in water body.