Vol. 33 Issue 1

Refaat Hassan Abdel Razek and Duha Sami Alsanad
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the management of technological innovation in one of the largest petrochemical companies in Saudi Arabia and to illustrate how to benchmark the results with the innovation management of other organizations. The evaluation consisted of five dimensions: strategy, processes, innovative organization, linkages and learning. The results showed that the Saudi Company has top management commitment and support for innovation, the learning dimension is very well managed, the company is committed to the development of its employees worldwide and the innovation system is flexible. The results also showed that the linkages and process dimensions ranked in the middle and the innovative organization and strategy dimensions have lower ranks. The results were compared with two Brazilian companies: “Arinos” and “Poly Easy”; and two Chinese companies: “Guizhou YiBai Pharmaceutical” and “Huagong Tools”. These companies are not similar to the Saudi Company in so many aspects; however, the comparisons were made for illustration reasons only in order to illustrate how it could be implemented and how to use the results to benchmark innovation management in organizations. The comparisons results revealed that the Saudi Company was doing better in several dimensions. It was 6.7% better than Guizhou YiBai Pharmaceutical Company in the process dimension and better than Arinos in the linkages and learning dimensions by 10% and 0.57% respectively. Some of the gaps between the Saudi Company and the average of the two Chinese companies and the average of the two Brazilian companies were small and could easily be closed.

Alajab Mohamed Alajab; and Waroud Ali Nasser Jafer
Problem Based Learning PBL is an educational approach that requires the students› interaction with each other to clarify their educational needs, share information for solving the problem under investigation and make use of various educational resources available online such as electronic books, scientific research papers, and Internet resources, and then access the collected information to reach a solution to this problem of education. This study aimed to determine the possibility of using electronic communication tools for the [Problem Based Learning] from resource persons’ point of views at College of Medicine & Medical Science; Arabian Gulf University. The study implemented a qualitative research method based on focus group techniques on a sample of 24 resource persons who work for the Arabian Gulf University. The most essential results that came out of the qualitative analysis were that there were many difficulties facing, the use of communication tools in the virtual learning environment WebCT. The time restrictions of the student, lack of using WebCT tools, lack of support for students to use the same tools by resource persons and tutors. The resource persons focused on the point that the students do not require skills to use WebCT, and there is a need to make the environment of using WebCT in line with the external environments which students refer to during their learning. Also, they focused on the importance of participation of students with college management to design the WebCT from the beginning and to instruct the students toward using the same environment, as the same shall be implemented on premedical and not after the start of using PBL. Recommendations included; the need to train the tutors and resource persons on using WebCT and help them master the skills needed for using WebCT in their teaching and interacting with their students.

Rajkani Kalidoss, Marsharla Anjanewlo Bhagyaveni and Ahmed Hassain Ahmed
Method of utilizing the scarce spectrum in an efficient manner is an (IEEE 802.22) is a standard for Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) based on cognitive radio that operates over underutilized portions of TV bands (54 to 862 MHz). Time Division Duplex (TDD) based WRAN cell has advantages such as dynamic traffic allocation, traffic asymmetry to users and ease of spectrum allocation. However, it suffers from severe cross time slot (CTS) interference when the frames of the cells are not synchronized with adjacent (WRAN) cells. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid Division Duplex (HDD) to mitigate the (CTS) interference. The proposed (HDD) system is much more flexible and efficient in providing asymmetric data service and eliminating (CTS) interference by exploiting the advantages of both (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed HDD scheme system can achieve 9 dB improvements in signal to interference ratio compared to conventional (TDD) based (WRAN).

Mona Soliman
Background: Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation activates inflammatory cascade that involve the up regulation of cytokine synthesis. This process is associated with organ damage and death. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is increased during hemorrhagic shock and participate in pro-inflammatory signaling. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) using Amino-guanidine against systemic inflammatory response in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Male Sprague- Dawley rats were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 6 per group): Normotensive rats (N); Hemorrhagic shock rats (HS); and Hemorrhagic shock rats treated with AG (HSAG). After 60 min hemorrhagic shock, rats were treated or not by injection of 1ml of 60 mg/Kg Amino-guanidine (AG) intra-arterially. Rats were then resuscitated in vivo by reinfusion of the shed blood to restore norm tension. The mean arterial blood pressure was monitored. Blood was collected following 60 min hemorrhage and 30 min in vivo treatment and resuscitation for TNF-a measurement. Results: The present study showed that inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) using Aminoguanidine decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the plasma after one hour of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. The results showed that hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation significantly increased the levels of TNF-α. Conclusion: Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS is involved in the up regulation of the inflammatory response in resuscitated hemorrhagic shock. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) using Amino-guanidine (AG) reduced the inflammatory response to hemorrhagic.

Nithya Palani Sami; and Sumathi Palani Aban
Nowadays, internet is a useful source of information in everyone’s daily activity. Hence, this made a huge development of world wide web in its quantity of interchange and its size and difficulty of websites. Web Usage Mining WUM is one of the main applications of data mining, artificial intelligence and so on to the web data and forecast the user’s visiting behaviors and obtains their interests by investigating the samples. SinceWUM directly involves in large range of applications, such as, e-commerce, e-learning, Web analytics, information retrieval etc. Web log data is one of the major sources which contain all the information regarding the users visited links, browsing patterns, time spent on a particular page or link and this information can be used in several applications like adaptive web sites, modified services, customer summary, pre-fetching, generate attractive web sites etc. There are varieties of problems related with the existing web usage mining approaches. Existing web usage mining algorithms suffer from difficulty of practical applicability. So, a novel research is very much necessary for the accurate prediction of future performance of web users with rapid execution time. The main aim of this paper to remove the noise and web robots by novel approach and provide faster and easier data processing and it also helps in saving time and it resource. In this paper, a novel pre-processing technique is proposed by removing local and global noise and web robots. Anonymous Microsoft Web Dataset and MSNBC.com Anonymous Web Dataset are used for evaluating the proposed preprocessing technique. An Effective Web User Analysis and Clustering are analyzed using Modified Fuzzy Possibilistic C Means (FPCM). Then results are evaluated using Hit Rate and Execution time.

Jehan Yahya Al-Hamidi, Abdulhamed Ahmed Alsaygh and Ibrahum Mahmoud Al-Najjar
IR،UV1،H- and 13C-NMR chemical shifts are reported for a series of 20 imines Ar(X)CH=R (R’ = thiazole derivatives, thiadiazole and benzothiazole). The stereochemistry of the imines were determined through their NMR spectral data. The imines were found to exist in solution as only a single E-isomer at ambient temperature. Interestingly ،the carbon-13 shifts for azomethine group (imines) (CH=N) carbons which are affected by both (X) and (Y) substituents. UV and IR spectra of some of the title compounds are also reported.