Vol. 33 Issue 2/3

Amine Nehari Talet and Razali Mat Zin
Companies turn to IT for innovative solutions in order to be competitive. Organizations must arm themselves with comprehensive knowledge to concentrate on the risks introduced by this unstable environment promptly. This study extends previous researches on the impact when executing risk management processes in Information Technology (IT) projects by examining the effects of knowledge management support for risk management processes that has caused many project failures in the past and encountered unanticipated resistance and never met expectation. Based on the extensive review of literature grounded in knowledge management and Risk management, a research model is proposed. The proposed model is validated by a survey of 350 practitioners involved in IT projects. The findings confirm that perceived that Knowledge Management processes has significant effects on risk identification for IT project. Moreover, this study identified the relationship knowledge processes between risk identification for IT project. This study expands the existing body of knowledge on the adoption of knowledge processes, and benefits on Risk identification for IT project.

Wael F. H. Shehata, Abdel Fatah H. Belal and Mohamed D. El-Deeb
The aim of this study is to detect the extent of physical factors (light intensity and temperature) effect on proliferation and germination of date palm somatic embryos in vitro. The treatments of this study were carried out by using two degrees of temperature (18±2ºC & 28±2ºC) with four levels of light intensity (0, 20, 40 and 60 μmol m-2 s-1). The obtained results revealed the following: The results showed that there are significant differences between the eight treatments of physical factors under study as the results monitored that the highest average for No. of somatic embryos germination was for the explants cultured at light intensity of 40 μmol m-2 s-1 and under low temperature of 18±2ºC, whereas the highest average for germination lengths was for the explants cultured at light intensity of 40 μmol m-2 s-1 and high temperature of 28±2ºC all over the study. While, the lowest values were for the explants cultured at total darkness.

Sambhu Chithambaran, Emad Ali Abdullah and Samy Al Deen
Tolerance and mortality of mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis to acute ammonia and nitrite exposure at various salinities were studied in fibreglass tanks (500L) for a period of 4 months at KAU Fish Farm, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Jeddah. Salinity tolerance was tested in 0 (Control) 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppt. After tolerance study, 60 fish from each salinity was taken for ammonia and nitrite exposure study. Ammonia toxicity was tested in 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4ppm; while nitrite was tested at 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 ppm. Survival decreased when salinity increased from 0 to 40 ppt and a significant relationship (R2=0.959) was found between increase in salinity and survival. Mortality rate was found to be increased when ammonia and salinity level increased and the highest mortality was observed in the highest dosage of ammonia (4ppm) and salinity (40ppt). Similarly, increased mortality was observed in higher levels of nitrite and salinity. Results show that Gambusia affinis can tolerate salinity up to 40 ppt, ammonia at 1ppm and nitrite toxicity at <8ppm.

Afnan Mahmood Freije and Layla Hazeem
The microalgal Chlorella sp. and Isochrysis galbana strains that have been used by the National Mariculture Centre in Bahrain to rear aquatic animals since the 1980s were investigated for fatty acid compositions. The results of the strain identification have confirmed the identity of the strain Isochrysis galbana and corrected the identity of the strain Chlorella sp. to Picochlorum sp. The fatty acids profile has shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the major forms of fatty acids in both species. The most abundant PUFAs were C18:4n3, and 18:2n-6 in Picochlorum sp., and C18:4n3, C22:5n3, and C18:3n6 in Isochrysis galbana. Omega 3 fatty acids (38.56±1.76%) were higher in Isochrysis galbana in comparison with Picochlorum sp. (16.89±3.63%); whereas omega 6 fatty acids were higher in Picochlorum sp. (36.53±1.91%) than in Isochrysis galbana (22.30±0.86%).The sum of EPA and DHA was 8.26±0.50% and 6.56±0.47% in Isochrysis galbana and Picochlorum sp. respectively. The n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio was 0.58 for Isochrysis galbana and 2.16 for Picochlorum sp. Our results suggest that both strains can be considered as a good food source for commercial production in aquaculture and that the mixing of both species will provide a balanced nutrition for animal growth in aquaculture.

Rabya A. Lahmer, Angela Morris, Simon F Curling, Graham A Ormondroyd, Davey L. Jones and Prysor A. Williams
Sheep wool can be used as an eco–friendly type of packaging that, due to its complex physical and chemical composition, can also help control humidity and reduce condensation. Given these properties, the potential of wool to be used as packaging liners for the transport of food products is of interest. The present study assessed the microbiological quality of meat packaged and stored at room temperature for 40 h in conventional EPS (expanded polystyrene) boxes and cardboard boxes lined with wool using standard, approved culturing techniques. The findings suggest that the wool may have potential market value as packaging liners for transporting meat, and possibly other food products. Further research is needed to allow better characterization to real-world conditions, and understanding of how wool used as a packaging liner could help maintain food quality on a larger scale.

Fatin E. M. Al-Obaidi
Without human involvement, the need for an automatic algorithms for quality assessment takes place especially for the case of distinguishing the quality of drinking water when the latter has the same color. Image quality assessment is closely related to image similarity assessment in which quality is based on the differences between a degraded image and the unmodified image. Based on a design of a full reference image quality measure with the help of an assumption that one of the captured images can be modeled to be the original one. The similarity measure can serve then as a quantitative measurement of the quality of the second image. A comparison between images has been tested and then analyzed by using laboratory investigations first and then by image quality metrics. Images have been captured by adopting a designing system prepared for this purpose. Results show that difference in water turbidity, heating process, and magnetization affect strongly upon image›s band histogram during the comparison that has been made here between drinking water samples. Among the various metrics that have been used here, the results show that Normalized Cross-Correlation (NK) and Structural Content (SC) are the best used measures in the presented assumption.