Vol. 37 Issue 3

Lulwa H. Budalamah, Ahmed O. El-Kholei and Odeh R. Al-Jayyousi
It is inconceivable to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the national level without accomplishing them locally. In the Arab region, municipalities face challenges to meet a widening gap between expenses and revenues. Securing a locally based sustainable financing model is of paramount importance. Wāqf is a value-based funding model that can offer new opportunities for sustainable financing to achieve SDGs locally. It agrees with Islamic law with the intent to promote social cohesion. The paper examines whether Wāqf, as a financing modality, is a Social Innovation (SI) model and its potential to finance development at the local level. The research method applied in this paper is qualitative. The authors compiled over 50 published articles, books, and reports covering the Wāqf and SI. The paper attempts to establish and explain linkages between Wāqf and both SI and SDGs. Content analysis using qualitative data analysis software is the research technique the researchers applied. The paper argues that Wāqf is an SI model. It can fund municipal initiatives that contribute to achieving SDGs. Results reveal linkages between Wāqf and SI and show that they contribute to sustainable development in human settlements. Besides, they both play a decisive role in fostering social equity, economic development, and environmental sustainability. Wāqf is a value-based financing model that satisfies the conditions and attributes of SI. Wāqf is an instrumental tool for financing development and supporting the attainment of SDGs in cities and municipalities. To harness the potential of Wāqf as an enabler for SDGs, organizational and business model innovation are needed to ensure transparency, accountability, and organizational learning.

Mohammad S. Abido, Kholoud Abou Seedo, Ahmed A. Salih, and Asma Abahussain
The wastewater discharge into the marine environment may affect the integrity of the mangrove ecosystem. In this context, the possible effect of secondary-treated municipal wastewater discharge on the nutrient concentrations in the leaves and soils of Tubli Bay gray mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.) was assessed at three sites. Physical properties and the percent of organic matter content in mangrove soil were measured. The nitrogen concentration was measured using the Kjeldahl method. Extractable phosphorus was quantified using the dry-ash method. Plant and soil concentration of K, Ca, Mg, and Na was determined using an inductively coupled plasma analyzer. Soil organic matter was estimated using the dry-ash method. The results showed no significant differences in the mangrove leaves’ nutrient concentration between sites regarding all the measured variables except N and Na. Wastewater discharge significantly affects mangrove leaves N content at the Tubli site where heavy wastewater loads are discharged. Leaf nutrients’ concentration followed the order: Na> K> N> Mg> Ca> P. Nutrients were concentrated in the topsoil layers in the following order: Ca > Mg > Na > K > N > P. Nutrient level showed a decreasing pattern with soil depth, except for Ca. Significant differences were observed in N and P’s levels in the soil layers between the affected site and the other two sites. Furthermore, the soil analysis indicated significant differences in N and P levels in the Tubli site soil compared to the other two sites due to wastewater discharge. No significant correlations were found between nutrient levels in the leaves of mangrove and its underlying soils. Additionally, the release of wastewater into the Bay significantly increased soil organic matter in the affected site. The study’s findings indicate that the continued release of the secondary effluent into the Tubli Bay may alter the Bay ecosystem’s Physico-chemical properties in general and mangrove survival in particular.

Afaf Bugawa and Shaikhah M. Aljuwaisri
Aim: This paper aims to identify factors that influence women’s entrepreneurship performance in the state of Kuwait. Method: As the current study is considered as an exploratory in its nature, a qualitative approach based on semi -structure interview was the most suitable method for data collection. Population and Sample: As there is no accurate number of women entrepreneurs, the study depends on a convenience sample and 9 women entrepreneurs were invited to participate in this study. The results revealed a set of factors that influence women entrepreneurs’ performance: internal(personal) factors, such as goals, motives, entrepreneurial orientation, and human capital; external (environmental) factors including cultural (value and religion), social (family and friends), economic, and legal and administrative, and time management. Both sets of factors help women to recognize market opportunity and positively affect women entrepreneurs’ performance. Practical implications: policy and decision makers in the state of Kuwait can devise the tools, methods, and techniques to reduce the negative impacts of these factors to enhance women entrepreneur’s performance. Theoretical implications: future research are invited to explore the impact of the current factors and may be other factors on the sectorial level as women entrepreneurs’ performance influence by general factors that are related to entrepreneurship ecosystem in the country level and there are factors on the sector level. Originality: the originality of this work emerges from two-folds: it modifies the work of Shane (2003) to fit the context of this study and testing the modified version in unique context socially, economically, and politically, culturally, and religiously. In general, it validates some of the well-established assumptions about women entrepreneurship that contend by prior studies.

Yasin I. Tayem, Marwa H. Al-Ghadani, Haitham A. Jahrami and Mazen K. Ali
Background: In psychiatric patients, interactions among non-psychotropic drugs may be unintentionally overlooked. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the rate and degree of interactions among non-psychotropic drugs in patients suffering from mental illnesses in Bahrain. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. A random sample of prescriptions ordered by the outpatient clinics of the psychiatry hospital from the 1st of January until the 31st of December 2017 was selected. The orders, which were issued for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were included in this study. The quantity and grade of drug interactions were measured by using Medscape drug interaction checker. The factors associated with those interactions were also examined. Data analysis was performed by using t-test, Chi-Square test, one-way ANOVA and multivariate analysis. Results: 995 prescriptions were included (55.4% males and 44.5% females) were included. The psychiatric diagnoses of the subjects were schizophrenia (39.1%), depression (23.1%), bipolar disorder (22.4%), schizoaffective disorder (11.2%) and anxiety disorders (4.1%). Polypharmacy was observed in 33.3% of the patients. Drug interactions were detected in 22.7% of the prescriptions. The grade of interaction was minor in 4.6%, significant in 15.6%, and serious in 2.5%. There was a positive correlation between the total number of interactions and polypharmacy (p< 0.001), and age over 35 years (p< 0.001). Moreover, interaction between those two risk factors was observed and resulted in a statistically significant increase in the total number of drug interactions (F = 6.286, p = 0.002). Conclusions: a relatively high rate of drug interactions was observed, associated with polypharmacy. There is a need to raise awareness among psychiatrists to check for non-psychotropic drug interactions in their patients. Classification according to the Dewey Decimal System: 615.5 (Pharmacology and Therapeutics).