Vol. 37 Issue 4

Adla Bakri Hassan, Ahmed Shaker Naga, Sarra Kamal Mustafa, Ahmed Abdel Karim Jaradat, Diab Eltayeb diab, and Haitham Ali Jahrami
Purpose: The assessment of vitamin D status (25(OH)D) and dosing strategies for patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs) in Bahrain are lacking. The current study aimed to determine serum 25(OH)D levels at baseline and after Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) therapy and to assess the changes in serum levels in response to three different regimens in adult patients with RDs in Bahrain. Methods: Data was collected retrospectively from 158 patients with RDs, during a period 20132019- at King Abdullah Medical City. The mean age of the patients was 45 years (range 18 - 83 years). Two third (66.46%, 105) of them were females. The controls were adult sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. All patients were investigated for vitamin D status during their first visits. Three regimens of Vitamin D3 therapy were assessed: Regimen1. A single parenteral dose of 600.000 IU. Regimen2. An oral dose of 50.000 IU weekly for 12 weeks, Regimen3. Maintenance oral dose whenever a patient achieved an optimal level. Results: The patients had lower serum levels of vitamin D3 compared to controls (P-Value=0.001; 95%C.I. (3.870, 15.599)). There was a statistically significant increase in mean serum levels of Vitamin D3 in Parenteral compared to Oral therapy (P-value<0.0005). In the patient group, vitamin D3 therapy leads to a statistically significant increase in its baseline level (P-value<0.0005), but the reduction in vitamin D3 from the therapeutic levels during maintenance was statistically not significant (P-value=0.177). Conclusion: The significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels from baseline in response to Vitamin D3 regimens was best achieved with single parenteral therapy of 600.000 IU. Maintenance therapy to maintain optimal level year-round is a must, and the best dose was 50.000 IU orally every 24- weeks.

Adel Ismail Al-Alawi and Sara Abdulrahman Al-Bassam
The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors of cybersecurity awareness in the banking sector. Literature shows several gaps that both top management and cybersecurity professionals must close to construct a successful digital institution in the conviction- and assurance-based economy. These gaps indicate four factors, top management commitment and support; budgeting; cybersecurity compliance; and cybersecurity culture. Methodology: A quantitative approach is used with questionnaire analysis. A total of 109 Information Technology (IT) employees completed a self-administrated survey from six Bahraini Islamic retail banks and five Bahraini conventional commercial retail banks. Descriptive analysis with percentage and a simple mean-based ranking of indicators used to analyze the data. Findings reveal the highest mean is 4.28 for security compliance. The lowest mean for Cybersecurity Culture at 4.24 concludes that all the factors are significant for cybersecurity awareness. Respondents strongly agreed with the necessity of these factors in the banking sector. The research limitation due to the insufficient information in the literature regarding the proposed combination of factors recommended. Practical implications for policymakers and cybersecurity specialists: This study provides a vital factor that may help improve policies or guidelines for successful cybersecurity awareness in organizations. To recognize cyber threats, cyber-attacks impact, and how to diminish cyber risk and avoid cyber-crime penetrating their cyberspace. Originality/value fills a gap in the literature to construct a successful digital institution in the conviction- and assurance-based economy. This study helps managers direct and proceed with their daily activities, where maintaining the cybersecurity component is significant. A cybersecurity component is a defense and safeguards the firm’s financial information, intellectual properties, and reputation against unauthorized parties. Moreover, the cybersecurity component concerns the organization and the public individuals exposed to cyber threats through their electronic digital media such as smartphones, personal computers, and Internet protocol systems. However, there is insufficient literature on the proposed combination of factors recommended as factors relating to cybersecurity awareness in the banking sector.

Abdelrahman M. Radaideh, Hisham Alkhalidi, Mohamad Nusier, and Mohammad Alqudah
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease characterized by hypercalcemia and excessive production of parathyroid hormone. It is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in outpatient practice and the third common endocrine disorder. The incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism is increasing with age, and it is more common in women than in men. 80-85% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism are due to single parathyroid adenoma. The majority of parathyroid adenomas contain a mixed cell population with predominance of chief cells. Primary hyperparathyroidism with clear cell adenoma is very rare. Here we are sharing two cases of water clear cell parathyroid adenoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism presented with deferent clinical manifestations.

Rasha Ahmad Aburukba and Ali Omar Albrezat
The study aims to employ geographic information systems to produce maps of the water cost of the olive harvest in Jordan for the water year 2019-2020 through the concepts of water consumption: (Reference Evapotranspiration, Crop Evapotranspiration, Water Requirement, virtual water, net water consumption, actual water demand. Virtual water trade) by following the FAO56 method, based on the climatic data of a group of climatic stations distributed throughout the Kingdom and the yield and productivity factors, by using the cartographic criteria necessary to produce digital maps to express the true reality of water consumption of the olive crop. The Reference Evapotranspiration accumulation rate was estimated at 1688 mm, and the values ranged between (lowest value 1129 mm and highest value 2222) mm. The average water requirements for each dunum of olive cultivated was estimated 923 m3 of water, and the values ranged between (the lowest value 621 and the highest value 1227) m3 / dunum. The net Crop Water Demand of the area (569.5 thousand donums) planted with olives was estimated at 525.649 m3 of water. The Virtual water rate for olive productivity (0.22 tons / dunum) was estimated at 4194 m3 / ton, and the values ranged between (the lowest value 2821 and the highest value 5576) m3 / ton. The Specific Water Demand was estimated as follows: (for the production of olives (125150 tons) with 524.879 m m3 of water, for the production of preserved olives (24691 tons) with 103.554 m m3 for the production of olive oil (20706 tons) for 86.841 m m3 of water). The Virtual water trade was estimated as follows: (for olive exports (1585 tons / year) amount to 6.647 m m3/ year of water, for Preserved olives exports (5442 tons / year) amount to 22,824 mm3 / year for water, for olive oil exports (575 tons / year) with 2.412 mm3 / year water. The study recommends the necessity of adopting the concept of virtual water as a wise tool for determining the water cost in irrigated agriculture, and using geographic information systems in producing crop water cost maps.