Vol. 38 Issue 1

Nouf Behzad, Reham Huzayen, Loula salih, Ahmed Jaradat, Naeema Ahmed and Diaa Rizk
Epidemiological research in the field of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is mainly limited by the diagnostic dilemma because of the intricacy of the female sexual response. The problem might start since the beginning of the sexual life, or it might be acquired later after having a normal sexual life. Around 40% of women worldwide affected by FSD. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and sociomedical correlates of FSD in Bahrain and assess the consequences of the condition to investigate the public health burden of this condition and increase awareness amongst health care providers. Materials and methods: A hospital based two centers (Salmaniya medical complex and king Hamad university Hospital); cross sectional study was conducted in Bahrain on a consecutive sample of 255 women visiting 2 gynecology clinics. The main inclusion criteria were: married women and sexually active, aged 18-55 years who presented to the ambulatory clinic with general gynecologic complaints not related to sexual dysfunction. Pregnant, unmarried, and women aged less than 18 or more than 55 years were excluded from the study population. A validated female sexual function index questionnaire (English version) was self-completed by the women. Demographic, obstetric, medical, and socioeconomic data were collected. A cut off FSFI score <26.55 was used to define the presence of FSD. Results: The total number of patients encountered in the study was 255, 84% were Bahraini, 11.4% were Arabs and 4.5% were from other nationalities. The differences in population characteristics between the 3 subgroups was not significant. The majority of women had a university education (58.4%), worked as professionals (32.9%), had >2 deliveries (39.9%) and were non-smokers (97.6%). It was found that 60% of the participants were complaining of chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and / or sever premenstrual symptoms, while 11.3% and 2.9% of the study cohort answered having at least one episode of urinary and fecal incontinence over the last 12 months. The overall prevalence of FSD was 55.7%. Four general variables were studied among which age more than 50 years old was found significantly associated with FSD (P=0.01). There was a significant association between FSD and abnormal uterine bleeding (11.8%) and vaginitis (22%). The most significant effects on low FSFI score were pain, satisfaction, lubrication, orgasm, desire and arousal. Conclusion: FSD is a highly prevalent condition in married women attending a gynecology clinic in Bahrain with a significant adverse impact on their quality of life. FSD deserves more attention in the national agenda and should be a priority in women health care.

Anwaar Buzaboon, Waheeb Alnaser, Hanan Alboflasa, Safwan Shatnawia, Khawla Albinalia and Thajba Aljowder
This paper reviews different ranking criteria for universities practicing environmental sustainability – named here as “Environmental Sustainability Higher Education ranking systems (ESHERSs)”. The purpose is to evaluate the degree of such criteria in supporting the higher education institutions (HEIs) in achieving environmentally sustainable development goals (SDGs). In this paper, the potential metrics for ranking systems are identified to promote environmentally sustainable development practices within HEIs and support their home countries in achieving SDGs. Three ESHERSs - known in focusing on teaching & research, environment and social scope are evaluated and scored according to their compliance with the Berlin Principles (BPs), where the later are used to propose a new framework for an intra- ranking system that contribute to more effective practice in Environment and Education, i.e. developing University of Bahrain Environmental Sustainability Higher Education ranking system ( UoBESHERS).

Waheeb E. Alnaser, Abdul Salam K. Darwish and Naser W. Alnaser
This paper explores the potential of utilizing wind electricity ( wind energy) to power part of King Abdulla Medical City (KAMC) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU), Bahrain. Installing a 1 MW- wind turbine is found to produce, annually, 2,221 MWh - which is enough to power about 37 houses and save an annual emission of CO2 equivalent of 1,710 tons, i.e., saving 700 ton of oil. Two scenarios - Scenario A and B - (each consists of 3 sub - scenarios) are made for the assessment of installing a 1 MW - wind turbine. The net present value (NPV) is found positive in both scenarios, even if the coefficient of performance (CP) was assumed as 30% and the wind turbine production was assumed to degrade annually by 1% (30 % segregation degradation after 30 years). The NPV in the lowest optimistic scenario (Scenario: 2A) is found at US$ 4.0 million with US ¢7.4/kWh. In this scenario, if the production is calculated without consideration of the inflation rate, then the cost US¢ 1.5/kWh. For the mostoptimistic scenario (Scenario 1A), which assumes CP = 40%, the cost US¢0.95/ kWh, when considering the inflation and without it US¢1.1 / kWh. In Scenario1C, US¢ 0.95/kWh if reported.

Shraddha Saha and Meonis Pithawala
Microbes are gaining resistance against chemotherapeutic agents (mostly antibiotics). Thus in recent times it has become very essential to search relatively safe, cheap and effective therapeutics from the plant source. The objective of the current study is to determine the antibacterial activity of Typha angustata Bory and Chaub. aqueous crude extract against bacteria isolated from the patients having different types of wound. A total of 50 clinical samples were obtained from patients having a wound, after their consent. Twenty isolates of pure bacterial cultures were detected. Escherichia sp. was found to be the predominant agent isolated from the wound infections (30%) followed by Staphylococcus spp. (25%), Streptococcus spp., (25%), and Pseudomonas sp., (20%). Sensitivity of the bacterial isolates were tested against selected antibiotics: CIP- ciprofloxacin; OFX- oflaxacin; CN- gentamycin; P- penicillin; OX-oxacillin; E- erythromycin, PB- polymyxin B LEV- levofloxacin; OFX- oflaxacin ; AMP- ampicillin; and TE-tetracyclin. The antimicrobial activity of T. angustata inflorescence crude extract was determined by well diffusion method. The results revealed that inhibition zone for Staphylococcus spp isolates were found to be in the range of (13mm-19mm), Streptococcus sp isolates (16mm-19mm), Psuedomonas sp. (18mm-20mm) and Escherichia sp. (16mm-19mm). The Minimum Inhibitary Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) values of T. angustata inflorescence crude extract against isolated species from wound samples were recorded in the range of (30-120mg/ml). The results of this study indicate that T. angustata has potential to be developed into antibacterial agent against resistant and susceptible bacteria that are mainly responsible for causing wound infections.