Vol. 39 Special Issue
Mohamed S. Hamid, Eid G. Abo Hamza and Nagwa Ibrahim A. Mohamed
Background: Addiction to Medical Website AMW is a kind of behavioral addiction characterized by excessive online health research. This leads to an unpleasant state of mind, health anxiety, and anxiety. Still, the measurement of AMW needs further research efforts.
Aims: The present study aimed to develop a scale to assess the Addiction to Medical Website Scale (AMWS) according to DSM-5 and to evaluate its structure, reliability and validity.
Method: A survey-based investigation has been carried out among a sample of university undergraduate students (N=220). Two different types of factor analysis are performed, i.e. exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to identify correlation among scale items and domains, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to validate the developed scale. Three-factor structure (i.e. domains) were labelled as Independency, Preoccupation, and Obsession, Negative emotions and social influences, and Excessive use. This study’s findings were validated using CFA conducted in smart PLS using convergent validity and discriminant validity.
Results: Reliability of scale was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, composite true reliability, and composite reliabilities for the overall scale, and the three dimensions are within the acceptable range, i.e., from .866 to .959. Out of 20 Scale Items, 11 items were found highly correlated with factor loading more than 0.708. Scale validity was accessed using Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and via heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations (HTMT) and found more than a threshold of 0.90. The highest correlated dimension is found as Negative Emotions and Social Influences (FS: 0.735), followed by Independency, Preoccupation, & Obsession (FS: 0.695), and the last being Excessive Use (FS: 0.681).
Conclusions: The AMW Scale demonstrated good psychometric properties, as can be seen from the results. The majority of Scale Items were correlated with high factor loading. The validity of scale further confirms the applicability of scale in large settings. This scale may be helpful for future researchers to validate it again in many other communities.
Ahmad AL-Shraifin, Abeer AL-Refai and Shams Al-Majthoub
Purpose: To investigate the difference in the level of the psychological response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the difference in the level of practice of each type of humor among Yarmouk University students according to gender, and the predictability of humor patterns in the level of the psychological response to the COVID-19 pandemic among Yarmouk University students.
Method: The present study adopted the descriptive and correlated approach, which examines the relationship between variables. The study sample consisted of 626 students (227 males, 399 females) from Yarmouk University, selected using a convenient sampling method. To achieve the study objectives, the study used Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), in addition to Humor Styles Scale.
Result: The study results revealed that the level of psychological response of the COVID-19 pandemic on Yarmouk University students was moderate. The study showed a statistically significant difference in the impact level of the COVID-19 pandemic on Yarmouk University students attributed to gender, in favor of males. The study also showed that the level of practicing adaptive humor style ranked first, then self-enhancement humor style with moderate level, followed by aggressive humor style, and finally self-defeat humor style with low level. Additionally, the results indicated a statistically significant difference in the level of humor styles attributed to gender, in favor of females in adaptive humor style, and favor of males in aggressive humor style. Furthermore, the study revealed that adaptive humor style and aggressive humor style have the predictive ability in the psychological response level of the COVID-19 pandemic, as adaptive humor style accounted for 12.6% of the total variance, while aggressive humor style accounted for 8.7% of the total variance.
Conclusion: Males are more affected by the Coronavirus pandemic than females, students are generally more likely to practice familial humor and self-promotion humor than aggressive humor and self-defeat humor, females are more likely to practice communal humor, while males are more likely to practice aggressive humor, the more likely the student is to practice familial humor, the lower he has the level of negative response to the Coronavirus pandemic, and the more likely he is to practice aggressive humor, the higher he has the level of negative response to the Coronavirus pandemic.
Hamzah Mahmoud Daradkah
Purpose: The study aimed at revealing the impact of the different learning styles in the virtual classrooms (synchronous/asynchronous) on Microsoft Teams on the cognitive achievement and development of motivation towards learning among primary school students in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Method: The researcher used the semi-experimental approach with a design consisting of two experimental groups. The study sample consisted of 50 students equally divided into two experimental groups. For the first group, the synchronous learning style was applied, and the second used the asynchronous learning style.
Results: The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) between the mean scores of the students of the first experimental group who were taught by the synchronous learning style in the pre-test and their average scores in the post-test of the cognitiveachievement test. The differences were in favor of the post-test. It was also found that there were statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) between the mean scores of students in the first and the second experimental groups in the post-test of the cognitive achievement test due to the difference in the two learning styles in the virtual classrooms (synchronous/asynchronous). The differences were in favor of the synchronous learning style. The results reveals that there were statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) between the mean scores of the students of the first and second experimental groups in the post test of the learning motivation scale due to the difference in the two learning styles (synchronous/asynchronous) in the virtual classrooms. The differences were in favor of the synchronous learning style.
Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of the two learning styles (synchronous/asynchronous) in the virtual classrooms had a positive effect on the cognitive achievement and the development of motivation towards learning. The study also found that the synchronous style in the virtual classrooms was statistically more effective and significant than the asynchronous style.
Hamza Al-Rababah and Haneen Mohammed Hamadna
Purpose: The study aimed to reveal the Predictive ability between moral motivation and academic identity patterns among Yarmouk University Students.
Method: This descriptive and comparative study used a sample of (502) students, selected in the manner available from Yarmouk University, during the first semester of the academic year 2020/2021.
Results: The results showed a high level of moral motivation, and its areas except for the field (social system) which came in a medium level. The results indicated that there were differences in the areas of moral motivation (social order, social justice) attributable to the gender variable and in the interest of males, in the area of (non-harm to others) in favor of females, and differences in the areas (restraint, social justice) attributable to the variable rate and to the benefit of students with excellent appreciation, while the results showed no differences in the level of moral motivation as a whole due to variables: gender, gpa, academic year, academic specialization. The results also showed a moderate level of academic identity patterns, except for the pattern of "troubled identity", which came at a low level among yarmouk university students. The results revealed differences in academic identity patterns (disturbed) due to the impact of sex, for males, the pattern of academic identity (achieved) and for females. Differences in the pattern of academic identity (troubled) are due to the impact of the academic rate in favor of students with the lowest academic rate, the pattern of academic identity (achieved) and the benefit of students with the higher academic rate. The results also showed a negative correlation function statistically between ethical motivation and both the pattern of academic identity (disturbed, suspended), and a positively correlational ability that was statistically functioning between moral motivation and the pattern of academic identity (achieved). Finally, the results revealed a predictive capacity for the two types of academic identity (achieved, and disturbed) by motivation, which together accounted for 8.7% of the overall variation interpreted for moral motivation.
Conclusion: Guiding and training students to build an identity that fulfills its positive role in developing moral motivation and enhancing it to practice ethical behaviors during their college life.
Abdelnaser D. Al-Jarrah and Fatima Ahmed Ali Al-Jasim
Purpose: The study aimed to reveal the percentage of students’ behaviors violating academic integrity in the distance-learning period during the Covid19 pandemic from the point of view of students, teachers, and parents of students. Moreover, whether they differ between students, teachers, and parents. It also aimed to reveal the differences in these practices according to the student's gender and academic level.
Method: To achieve the objectives of the study, the descriptive approach was used, the sample consisted of (745) participants in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, distributed by gender variable (464) males, (281) females, including (330) male and female students, (259) parents, and (156) teachers. To achieve the objectives of the study, the Academic Integrity Scale was prepared, and it consists of three dimensions: attending classes, performing assignment, and submitting tests.
Results: The results showed that the percentage of the prevalence of behavioral practices that violate academic integrity among students was 41.5%, among parents, it was 40.4%, and in the teachers, it was 57.2%. The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences in the sample estimates of the behavioral practices of the students, and the differences were in favor of the teachers. It also showed that there were differences due to the sex of the student, on the scale, and on the field of test performance, and the differences were in favor of females. The study made several recommendations, including raising awareness of the importance of academic integrity for the teaching and learning process for all members of society and its importance in creating a transparency society, and developing various electronic methods to limit practices of violating academic integrity.
Conclusion: The results of the study constitute a concern that must be addressed in order to achieve greater academic integrity for pre-university learners. Teachers feel these violations of academic integrity more than others, and the behavioral practices of violating academic integrity among female students are more than that of male students, which needs further research and study. It also emphasizes activating the role of the academic advisor in the school to reduce this phenomenon as it represents self-deception for the student, and threatens the value system of society.