Vol. 34 Issue 1/2

Ayeza Naeem, Tanveer Abbas, Tahira M. Ali and Abid Hasnain
The antioxidant, total phenolic content, total flavonoid, total flavonol content and antibacterial activities of selected herbs and spices were examined. The spices extracts were prepared by cold solvent extraction method using two different extractants i.e. methanol and ethanol. The antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH scavenging ability. The content of phenols was evaluated by using Folin Ciocalteu Micro method and flavonoid and flavonol contents were analysed by UV-Spectrophotometry. These herbal decoctions were also tested against five food-borne isolates by agar well diffusion, drop agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution and simultaneous determination of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Significantly higher concentration of bioactive compounds was present in ethanolic extracts of tested herbs and these compounds also displayed higher antibacterial potential against all the tested microorganisms. Results presented here suggested that these extracts can therefore be employed as a natural additive in cosmetic, food and therapeutic industries.

Amar M. Ellafi, Salam, S. Zagael and Rabya A. Lahmer
This research aimed at detecting the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in local hard wheat and tracking its traces in semolina produce during milling processes followed in some mills in the area of Tripoli. 96 samples of wheat and its derivatives are collected from three mills (32 sample each) at the four stages of the milling process: wheat storage, purification and cleaning, semolina production, and bran separation. A solid phase extraction method is used to obtain the poison (RPSPE 18) and to clean the extract. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is employed to detect OTA and estimate its levels. The limits of quantifications were determined to be 0.025 ppb and the recovery rate to be 94%. The results showed that 88% (21/24) of the uncleaned wheat samples are contaminated with OTA, with concentrations ranging from 1.4-11.8 and an average value of 5.9 μg/kg. The percentage of contamination in cleaned wheat reached 79% (19/24), with concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 9.3 μg/ kg and an average concentration of 5.3 μg/kg. Toxin’s presence in semolina decreased by almost 50% (12/24) compared to raw wheat. The concentration observed in semolina ranged between 0.6 and 2.1 μg/kg, with an average of 1.2 μg/kg. On the other hand, the percentage of contaminated bran samples were 83% (20/24), with concentrations varying from 0.7 to 6.9 μg/kg and an average of 4.2 μg/kg. The results showed that 88% of raw wheat samples were of average OTA concentration slightly above the limit of 5 μg/kg as set by the Libyan standard No. 231/2005. On the other hand, the average OTA concentration in all semolina samples was below the limit of 3 μg/kg set for this product in the same standard. Milling processes led to a significant reduction (38%) of the presence of OTA in semolina. The average concentration of the toxin in the semolina also dropped by approximately 80%. The (ANOVA) analysis showed significant variations in OTA presence between each of the raw, cleaned wheat, and semolina/bran (C.L of 99%).

Mahfouz Al-Bachir and Yasser Othman
This work report the effect of irradiation with gamma rays (1, 2 and 3 kGy) on the chemical composition, microbial loads, chemical characteristics and sensorial properties of the peanut seeds. The data obtained from the experiments showed that gamma irradiation process has no effect on the proximate composition (water content, proteins, sugars, lipids, and ash), and chemical attributes (free fatty acids, pH value and based nitrogen value (BVN)) of peanut seeds. Irradiation was found to cause significant reduction in microbial load and no fungal colonies were detected in irradiated samples with 2 and 3 kGy. Bacterial and fungal load of irradiated peanut seeds and there comparison with control samples suggest that gamma irradiation treatment at low doses is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for fungal load. However, non-irradiated and irradiated peanut seeds did not show significant differences in the sensorial test (texture, odor, color and test).

Mona M Al Shaikh Al Mahmood, Randah R Hamadeh, Majida Fikree, Mona A Nasser, Marya Aljowder, Fatima Habib, Amjad Al Hashimi, Naeema Ahmed, Bushra Alhindi, Khadija Saleh and Thakryate Hijres
Objective: to perform a multidimensional health assessment for Bahraini elderly and identify areas of need. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Elderly 60 years and more who are attending elderly daycare centers in Bahrain. Method: A total of four hundred and fifteen men and women attending elderly daycare centers were interviewed. Mini mental state examination, depression scale, activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living were assessed through a questionnair designed for the purpose of this study. Furthermore, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and random blood sugar were measured. Results: 76.8% of the women and 57.3% of the men were hypertensive. The prevalence of diabetes was 58.8% in women and 57.4% in men. Overweight was present among 22.4% of elderly. Three quarters of the elderly had an unremarkable mental status based on the mental and functional assessment scale. Conclusion: Attendees of elderly daycare centers in Bahrain were generally independent. However, counseling on lifestyle modification and monitoring of their health status is required.

Eman A. Al-Imara1 and Ghaidaa J. Al-Gazzawy
Twenty Bacillus spp. isolates were identified from sediment and water samples from different locations in Basrah Governorate, Iraq. The bacterial isolates were cultivated, identified by morphological, biochemical and by using VITEK BCL card. The antibacterial effects of Bacillus extracts against target bacteria included: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Kocuria kristinae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli were examined by agar diffusion test as well as by measuring the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) in microtiter dilution assay. The produced extracts showed a variable activity against target bacteria with a MICs ranged between (1.6-6.24) μg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (1.6-3.12) μg/ml against Escherichia coli, (0.4-1.6) μg/ml against MRSA, and (0.2-0.8) μg/ml against Kocuria kristinae respectively. Our findings highlighted the importance of sediments and water bacterial isolates for production of compounds with interesting bioactivities that may contribute to drug research field.

Naif K. Al- Shammari and Clive Neal-Sturgess
The camel–vehicle collision (CVC) problem has been increasing in Saudi Arabia and countermeasures are urgently needed to alleviate the heavy losses from such accidents. Modeling of a typical CVC has been created in a sagittal, and frontal planes to identify the common mechanisms of spinal injury of driver. In this work, computer simulations have been performed using a Multibody dynamic model of the cervical and thoracic-lumbar spine, where rigid bodies are connected by articulated joints and spring-damper elements. The internal neck forces Principle Virtual Power of Neck (PVPn) was applied at intervertebral levels for various impact speeds. PVPn was then correlated with real world crash data of neck injuries. It has been shown that PVPn at each intervertebral level correlates well with the crash data and can be used as a predictor of neck injuries.