Vol. 36 Issue 1/2/3/4

Safaa M. Imran and Sahra H. Zain
Background: The health burden and mortality caused by infectious diseases of children remain high word wide. Mortality and morbidity data are essential to identify the public health importance of different diseases and allocate resources appropriately. Objective: This study was undertaken to describe the main causes of hospitalization and death among children in Basra. Methods: A cross –sectional retrospective design was used to determine the main causes of hospitalization and death (a part from malignant diseases) among children in Basra. Medical records for patients admitted to the pediatric department in Basra General Hospital throughout 2013 were collected and analyzed for demographics, diagnosis, and outcome. Results: Around 53.3% of the patients were under 13 months. More than half of the studied population was males (60%), with a male: female ratio was 1.5: 1. The most common cause of hospital admission was Gastroenteritis (48.9%), followed by Respiratory diseases (19.7%) and Urinary Tract Infection (15.1%). The overall mortality rate was 1.4%, where 60.6 % of them are females and the complications of urinary tract infection were the most common cause. Conclusion: Infectious diseases were the main cause of hospitalization among Basra children and might lead to death. A substantial proportion of this morbidity and mortality was probably attributable to preventable causes. Prospective surveillance using microbiological data is needed to delineate the organism-specific burdens.

Haya Aljadani and Latifah Alobodi
Background: Obesity is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia. It significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality among Saudi population. Food addiction has received a lot of attention due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, which is directly related to over consumption. To our knowledge; no study has explored addiction to food among the Saudi. Objectives: To investigate the existence of food addiction in Saudi Arabian adults; and how it is associated with weight status; and other co-factors. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: healthy Saudi adults who volunteered to participate in an online survey (http://www.surveymonkey.com/), Saudi Arabia. Study population and Methods: The survey had 1384 responses but only 1059 of those met the criteria of the study (26% men and 74% women) ranging in age from 18 to 59. The Yale Food Addiction Scale was used to diagnose food addiction. Main Outcome Measures: Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between food addiction, overweight and obesity. Results: 10.9% of the entire study population diagnosed with food addiction. They were heavier by 13.8kgs. Those who were diagnosed with food addiction were 4.1%, 8.4% and 19.9 % among those who were healthy, overweight and obese respectively. The obese were 6.5 times more likely to have food addiction than those with normal weight. Food addiction found to be associated with people had a low income, were trying to lose weight, physically inactive, and watched TV, or used a phone for more than 5 hours each day. Conclusion: Food addiction was found to exist in Saudi people and it is associated with those who were heavier. Thus, urgent intervention is needed to manage and overcome this problem. Limitation: This is a cross-sectional study thus a longitudinal analysis is needed to evaluate the relationship between food addiction prevalence and weight status. The data was self-reported.

Fatima Zohra Babou, Amina Kadiri, Fatima Yakoubi, Hasni Rahim Guealia, and Moulay Belkhodja
Soil pollution is one of the main environmental stresses due to the effect of various contaminations by heavy metals like lead. The aim of this study is to examine the response of a halophile species Atriplex halimus L. under lead stress. This plant is watered from the germination stage with different concentrations of lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 1000, 3000, 5000 and 7000 ppm for 100 days. The response of plants is evaluated by an analysis of the growth mass parameters (fresh and dry weight) and biochemical parameters (chlorophyllian pigments, proline and total proteins). The results reveal a growth inhibition of the aerial and root parts by Pb(NO3)2 treatment compared to control. On the other hand, the biochemical response indicates that the amount of chlorophyll pigments reduced by the effect of different treatment of lead. In contrast, proline and total proteins contents increased in leaves and roots of Atriplex halimus L. as a response to stress.

Mashael Abdulla Al Mulhim, Sabah S. Aljenaid, Amro A. Darwish, Ghadeer Khadem and Nadir A. Hameed
This study aims to analyze the reasons for the increase in the frequency and severity of asthma attacks among middle school students in the province of Al-Ahsa in Saudi Arabia in 2015. The methodology of the study focused on the distribution of a questionnaire to a sample of 91 students of public and private schools in the middle stage distributed in the six major cities of Al-Ahsa: Mubarraz, Eyes, Al-Jafr, Joatha, and Urbanism. School location data was collected using an iPhone, which uses the IOS operating system through mobile GIS software applications Environmental, urban, social, and behavioral metadata affecting the severity and frequency of asthma attacks were collected by distributing a questionnaire to the selected sample of female students. Data were organized and analyzed using GIS and statistical programs. School site maps were developed, and Geospatial Database was built in the GIS environment to collect, store and analyze study data. SPSS was used to analyze the survey questionnaire and determine the pattern of geographical distribution of the increasing number of female students who suffer from increased severity and recurrence of asthma and its relationship to the various factors adopted in this study. Spatial Statistics used spatial data to facilitate comparisons of the different distribution patterns of the studied phenomenon and used Spatial Autocorrelation to determine the distances that show the most visible spatial agglomeration in the sample studied, and to identify the hot spots (the most affected). Nearest Neighbor Analysis was also used to detect the pattern of severity distribution and frequency of asthma attacks in the six city districts. The results of the study showed the ease of using mobile GIS software to capture, collect and store school data. The number of students with asthma was 336, representing 50% of the study sample. The rate of infection among female students’ families increases to 65%. Analysis of the personal data of the studied sample of female students showed that the severity and frequency of asthma attacks in Saudi women are higher than in non-Saudi students. Also, most of them do not have a clear and accurate knowledge of the addresses of their residence, which was excluded from the analysis, which is a general and very important information at this age. The results of the questionnaire and spatial distribution maps of environmental, urban, social, and behavioral factors affecting the severity and frequency of asthma attacks indicated that the majority of cases are concentrated in the cities of Hofuf and Mubarraz. The number of injured students in the cities of Hofuf 197 students, and in Mubarraz 180 students. The results indicate that the highest frequency of asthma attacks occurs in the summer more than in the winter when the wind blows dust, as well as increased activity during playtimes, exposure to chemicals, and this leads to absent during the year between one day and five days. Sinusitis is the highest infection rate associated with female students. Allergies and heredity have a significant role in increasing the frequency and severity, and the percentage of those who hear their breathing increases to 51%, and most suffer from tightness in the chest, and the number of 325 students, equivalent to 64% of the sample, and 292 students use sprays 58% of the study sample.

Maha M. Jumha, Sabah S. Aljenaid, Maha Mahmood Alsabbagh and Ghadeer M.R. Kadhem
This study aims to detect and analyze land-use, and land cover (LULC) changes in Sitra Island during the past 50 years, from 1967 to 2018, and to assess changes in class categories of LULC for each year of the study. The data were collected from various sources such as aerial photographs, satellite images, maps, previous studies and reports of government projects in addition to official statistical data of the study period. GIS was used to prepare the required maps to detect changes LULC during the study period and construct two Vector and Raster Data Models. Six class categories of land (built-up, agricultural, barren, wet, reclaimed, and industrial) were identified. The results indicated that the total area of Sitra Island land increased from 8.08 km 2 in 1967 to 15.1 km 2 in 1998, and increased from 16.4 km 2 in 2009 to more than 22.5 km 2 in 2018. As a result, the area of agricultural land, which constituted more than 30.4% of the total island area, decreased from 2.5 km 2 in 1967 to less than 1% (0.2 km 2) in 2018. The area of reclaimed areas for industrial and residential purposes increased to constitute more than 30% of the island area (6.82 km 2) in 2018. The industrial areas surrounding the island expanded to more than 30.6% of its area to reach 6.9 km 2 in 2018.

Fawaz Abdullah Alenezi, Sabah S. Aljenaid, Mohammad Sulaiman Abido and Ghadeer MK. Redha
Urban areas in accordance with the standards of the third structural plan of the State of Kuwait, the ratio of population to the ratio of urban open space, population to the proportion of urban open space, and the coverage of open urban areas in residential suburbs to Total area, coverage ratio of open urban areas to total area, service range for suburban and residential beneficiaries, and distance of open urban areas from gas stations. The Suitability Analysis Method was used to select optimal locations for the establishment of new open urban areas, and the weight-of-standards method was selected for Weight Restrictions for Suitability Analyzing. The most common criterion for open spaces was the distance from gas stations, with 95% of suburbs meeting this standard. Through adequacy models, 17 areas were identified that matched the study criteria. Accordingly, the study recommended the necessity of establishing new open spaces, relying on GIS in identifying optimal locations for the establishment of new areas, and the need to maintain the maintenance of open space facilities, and the establishment of a central geographic information system that supports decision-makers in the management, control and maintenance of open spaces.