Vol. 39 Issue 4

Djallal Eddine Houari ADLI, Mokhtar BENREGUIEG, Kaddour ZIANI, Mostapha BRAHMI, Miloud SLIMANI, Khaled KAHLOULA, Si Tayeb TAYEB
Purpose: Aluminum (Al) and its various forms are environmental xenobiotics that pose great threats to public health. The probiotic strain has been reported to have important protective effects against aluminum cytotoxicity. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the disruption of neurobehavioral and hematobiochemical parameters caused by chronic exposure to AlCl3, and then explore the protective effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus against these adverse in male rats. Method: Thirty-two animals were gathered into four groups: The first group served as control. The second group received 100mg AlCl3/kg bw for 12 weeks. However, the third group was administered 10mL probiotic strain /Kg (108 CFU/ml) bw/d daily for 4 weeks. Finally, group 4 received AlCl3 for 12 weeks, then the treatment was continued with probiotic for 4 weeks. Results: AlCl3 produced a decrease in body and brain weights with respect to their control. The results obtained also showed significant depression and anxiety-like behavior in the intoxicated animals, with a disturbance of the tested hematobiochemical parameters, particularly in renal and hepatic biomarkers. Overall, probiotics prevented enduring AlCl3-induced depression-like behavior in intoxicated rats. The results of the hematobiochemical, renal and hepatic analyses show a correction of the values after the administration of probiotics compared to those of intoxicated and untreated animals. Conclusion: The probiotic lactobacilli would be an alternative to reduce AlCl3 toxicity.

Farah Shireen, Bashir Ahmad, Saad Ahmad Khan, Abdur Rauf, Anees Ahmed Khalil, Fawad Aziz, Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha, Mohammed A. Al-Duais, Yahya S. Al-Awthan, Gokhan Zengin
Purpose: The research study was prototyped to assess pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, phytotoxic and haemagglutination) of Agave americana, Mentha spicata and Mangifera indica leaves extracts. The positive outcomes of the study can aid in formulations of novel therapeutic opportunities by using natural, eco-friendly, and economic raw materials having least side effects and aced potency. Method: Leaves extracts of Agave americana, Mentha spicata and Mangifera indica were prepared using analytical grade ethanol, methanol, acetone and n-hexane. Then the extracts were subjected to antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, phytotoxic and haemagglutination assay. Well-diffusion antibacterial protocol was followed against pathogenic bacteria. Tube dilution antifungal protocol was followed against pathogenic fungi. DPPH radical scavenging assay at variable sample dilutions was followed for antioxidant assay. Lemna minor lethality assay was followed for phytotoxic assay. Haemagglutination assay were assessed against ABO blood groups. Results: Crude leaves extracts (aqueous, acetone, methanolic and ethanolic) of preferred plants i.e., Agave americana, Mentha spicata and Mangifera indica owned superlative antimicrobial efficacy against all test micro-organisms specifically Escherichia coli ((91%), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (85%), Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (81%) and mycelium of Fusarium oxysporum (85%) was halted by Agave americana leaves extracts. In comparison to these crude extracts of Mentha spicata terrifically halted growth of Proteus mirabilis (80%) while leaves extracts Mangifera indica halted growth of Streptococcus griseus (90%) respectively. Excellent antioxidant and phytotoxic efficacy were recorded at higher sample concentrations. No haemagglutination efficacy recorded. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that leaves of Agave americana, Mentha spicata and Mangifera indica possess excellent antimicrobial potentials which can aid to formulation new antibiotics having excellent effects in least doses. These extracts can also be used to treat many maladies by eliminating reactive oxidants and promoting healthy metabolism. These extracts can also be utilized as ecofriendly and user-friendly herbicide.

Mohammed Bouhadi, Ouafa Cherifi, Nadia Bahammou, Khalil Cherifi, Mohammed Talbi, M’hammed Elkouali, Hassan Fougrach
Purpose: Algae are living organisms capable of photosynthesis and live mainly in an aquatic environment (marine or freshwater), and considered as plants like those growing on the soil. It can therefore be used to enrich the soil in organic matter, and mineral elements, as for composting green waste, for example. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of marine macroalgae Enteromorpha intestinalis (Ulvophycae) and Corallina elongata (Corallinacae) as biofertilizers on the growth of Zea mays L. Method: After rinsing, the algae were ground into a fine powder. The powder obtained from each seaweed was divided into two batches. For the first batch, the seaweed powder (AP), was used directly in the pots one week before planting. Two concentrations, 5% and 10%, were studied. The second batch was used to prepare liquid algal fertilizer (ALF). To determine the mineral composition of each seaweed, X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed. the biofertilizing potential of Enteromorpha intestinalis and Corallina elongata was studied on corn plants, evaluating the effect of these two algae at different growth stages (15, 25, 45 and 60 days) and the chlorophyll a and b content. Results: The elemental analysis of the two algae by X-ray Fluorescence shows that the main elements are water, chlorine, potassium, calcium, silicon, natrium, magnesium, iron and sulfur. The results show that E.intestinalis is richer in minerals compared to C.elongata, except for Strontium and calcium, where C.elongata is more rich. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the macroalgae Enteromorpha intestinalis and Corallina elongata from the Atlantic coast of Morocco are valuable biofertilizers. On the other hand, the application of seaweed extract is more effective than the application of seaweed powder, and Enteromorpha intestinalis can affect the growth parameters at a low concentration (5%), unlike Corallina elongata. The different positive roles of algae in agriculture should be clarified, as our results showed that they can be used as an excellent fertilizer.

Khan Fatima,Mahtab Md, Ahmed Shariq, Sultan Asfia,Azam Mohd, Rizvi Meher, Raafiah Izhar

Purpose: Leptospirosis is a tropical zoonotic illness, in which the role of immune response in the pathogenesis is proven but poorly understood. Response of cytokines is said to play a key role in disease progression and pathogenesis. There are proven studies on pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNFα, IL-6 and anti-inflammatory like IL-10 in human leptospirosis however, the role of IL-2, IL-4, IL-15, GCSF and MCP-2 needs more comprehensive studies. Present study was conducted to evaluate the role of IL-2, IL-4, IL-15, GCSF and MCP-2 in human leptospirosis as prognostic indicator.

Methods: Blood samples from patients meeting the inclusion criteria for leptospirosis were included in the study. PCR and IgM ELISA were carried out for diagnosis. Serum cytokine levels in Leptospira positive patients and in controls were estimated by ELISA. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 and Med Calc 16.1. software.

Results: Out of 270, 45(16.7%) patients were confirmed as cases of leptospirosis. The mean level of the cytokines (IL-15, MCP-2, G-CSF) differed significantly between the patients and the control group (p < 0.001). GCSF, MCP-2, IL-15 and IL-4 were elevated in most cases. IL-2 level was depressed in 34 out of 45 cases. The AUCs for IL-2, IL-15, MCP-2 and GCSF were 0.906 (95% CI 0.341 to 0.665), 0.929 (95% CI 0.837 to 0.978), 0.909 (95% CI 0.812-0.966) and 0.881 (95% CI 0.777 to 0.948) respectively. On spearman rank correlation, GCSF level showed correlation with MCP-2 (rho = 0.415, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: The study provided an understanding of cytokine patterns in leptospirosis, and concluded that IL-15, MCP-2 and GCSF can be used as an effective biomarker for leptospirosis and indicators of disease progressions.